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掌握逻辑关系词突破雅思阅读

掌握逻辑关系词突破雅思阅读

学校:广州朗阁培训中心 时间:2015-12-4 11:55:24

 阅读文章由四个部分组成:词汇、句子、段落、篇章。词汇作为理解文章的基础,其重要性显而易见。但很多同学谈词色变,抱怨生词太多,文章难理解。加上雅思阅读词汇意思大多偏学术类,不常见,即使基础再好的同学,都很难做到认识所有考点词。针对这一问题,朗阁海外考试研究中心的专家在多年的教学研究中发现,只要考生掌握句与句之间的逻辑关系,即使不认识考点词,也能够猜出答案。本篇文章将重点分析一下同学们在学习过程中忽略逻辑关系词的原因,以及逻辑关系词在雅思阅读中的分类和应用。

 

一、忽视逻辑关系词的原因

 

1. 汉语是表意(象形)文字,英语是表音文字

 

大部分汉语单词本身是有意义的,我们的祖先结合自然和实际生活创造文字,无需通过上下文我们就可以猜出词汇的意思,比如我们最开始学的”“等,这些词与我们实际生活中见到的实物差不多,所以我们容易记住词的意思。其次再用这些词和其它词组合而成的单词我们也能够猜出词汇意思,比如,应该和木头有关。而英语是表音文字,是由一系列字母组成的,字母本身没有意义,比如我们很难把英语里面的“water”, and “wood”和生活中的实物联系起来。这些单词本身是没有意义的,是人类在发展过程和实际生活中的需要赋予了这些词意义。再比如动词,无上下文提示,根据提手旁就可以推测出来这个词是表动作而且和手有关,而英语“rob”单单一个词,无上下文我们是很难猜出词汇意思的,只有放在具体语境中我们才能猜出它的词性以及内容:He stopped me, beat me and robbed me of my money. (他截住我,打了我,并且抢了我的钱。)所以英语词汇要放在逻辑关系语义中更容易学。

 

2. 在句子应用中,汉语逻辑关系词可以省略,而英语则不行

 

我负担不起去英国留学,因为花费太高了。1

I couldn’t afford to study in England, because the expense is exorbitant.2

 

1句汉语例子中表原因的逻辑关系词因为在实际应用中是可以省略的,而且也不影响我们对句子的理解。而2句英语里面的逻辑关系词“because”在实际应用中是不能省略的,并且我们通过“because”可以判断出“exorbitant”意思应该是表示

 

从以上分析,我们可以得出由于英汉两种语言在词汇构造上的差异,以及在句子应用中的表达方式不同,我们母语使用比较灵活,可以忽略逻辑关系词,所以受母语影响,我们常常忽略英语逻辑关系词在理解中的重要作用。

 

二、逻辑关系词在雅思阅读中的分类和应用

 

在例子(2)里面,我们只要知道“because”表原因,就可以推导出“exorbitant”意思,并且英语里表示此类逻辑关系的词是有限的,所以同学们只要记住各类逻辑关系词的意思就可以轻松推理出考点词的意思。

 

1. 原因

 

判断题:Problems in Nordic countries were excluded because they are outside the European Economic Community.(剑7 T3 P3-Q27

 

定位原文:Those confined to particular geographical areas, such as countries bordering the Mediterranean or the Nordic countries therefore had to be discarded.

 

此题很多同学因为在原文中未出现European Economic Community而误选NOT GIVEN但是如果我们按逻辑关系“because”去定位原文“therefore”, 就能猜出答案。Therefore意思是表结果,那么前面应该是在描述原因(Those confined to particular geographical areas), 而问题给的原因是(they are outside the European Economic Community), 所以答案是FALSE

 

表原因的逻辑关系词:because, because of, therefore, so, hence, thus, since, result in, result from, as a result, due to, for, cause, contribute to, consequently, as, lead to, owing to and in that, etc.

 

2. 否定

 

完成句子填空:The sense of smell may involve response to ______ which do not smell, in addition to obvious odors.8 T2 P3-Q39

 

定位原文:Researchers have still to decide whether smell is one sense or two-one responding to odours proper and the other registering odourless chemicals in the air.

 

问题空格后面是一个否定定语从句“which do not smell”, 对应原文中的否定词odourless, less是否定词根,所以答案是chemicals

 

判断题:Scientists have yet to determine the cue for Chusquea abietifolia’s seasonal rhythm.5 T4 P3-Q32

 

定位原文:The climatic trigger for this flowering cycle is not yet known.

这题很多同学错选FALSE, yet to do something是表示否定的,意思是还没有去做,所以答案是TRUE

 

表否定逻辑关系的词根:decline, dehydrate, disagreeable, disable, misconduct, mislead, inconsistent, inaccurate, immortal, imperfect, irregular, irrelevant, nonexistent, nonstop, unstable, uninformed, subconscious, subordinate, undervalue, underestimate, odorless and regardless etc.

 

表否定的逻辑关系词:not, no, never, without and rather than etc.

 

3. 举例子

 

完成句子填空:Plants which do not respond to light levels are referred to as _____.5 T4 P3-Q35

 

定位原文:Plants which flower after a period of vegetative growth, regardless of photoperiod, are known as day-neutral plants.

 

此题通过referred to asknown as同义替换,可以直接得出答案:day-neutral plants, 此类题型在雅思阅读中经常出现。

 

流程图题:stage one resin, called ____5 T2 P1-Q4

 

定位原文:The result was a resin known as Novalak.

 

此题很多同学不认识生词“resin”, 但可以通过“called”“known as”同义替换推测出答案是Novalak.

 

表举例子的逻辑关系词:such as, known as, refer to as, like, for example, for instance, to point out, in particular, in detail, especially, specifically and call etc.

 

4. 转折

 

段落大意题:It was once assumed that improvements in telecommunications would lead to more dispersal in the population as people were no longer forced into cities. However, the ISTP team’s research demonstrates that ... . The new world will largely depend on human creativity, and creativity flourishes where people come together face-to-face.(剑7 T2 P1-Q5

 

这道题目很多同学因为第一句话出现improvements in telecommunications而误选“vi. the impact of telecommunications on population distribution”第二句话有转折词however, 所以答案肯定不选vi, 正确选项是“iii. the benefits of working together in cities”, 对应原文最后一句话。

 

完成句子填空:Day length is a useful cue for breeding in areas where _____ are unpredictable.(剑5 T4 P4-Q34

 

定位原文:Day length is an excellent cue, because it provides a perfectly predictable pattern of change within the year. In the temperate zone in spring, temperatures fluctuate greatly from day to day, but day length on increases steadily by a predictable amount.

 

这题很多同学会错选pattern, 原文but后面描述的是白天长度(day length)是可以预测的(predictable),前半句话的意思与此相反,表示temperatures是不可以预测的(fluctuate-波动,所以答案是temperatures

 

段落大意题:In spite of its importance to our emotional and sensory lives, smell is probably the most undervalued sense in many cultures. The reason often …8 T2 P3-Q29

 

这题即使同学不认识“undervalued”这个词,也可以通过“in spite of”虽然但是推导出前后两者的关系应该是相反的(与importance意思相反,表示不重要,低估),所以答案是“vi. why our sense of smell is not appreciated”, undervalued”“not appreciated”同义替换。

 

表转折的逻辑关系词:but, however, yet, in contrast, on the contrary, whereas ,nonetheless, nevertheless, while, whilst, although, despite, in spite of, whereas, alternatively, even though and even if etc.

 

5. 条件

 

选择题:According to the introduction, we become aware of the importance of smell when __(剑8 T2 P3-Q33

 

定位原文:We breathe in the aromas which surround us without being consciously aware of their importance to us. It is only when the faculty of smell is impaired for some reason that we begin to realize the essential role the sense of smell plays in our sense of well-being.

 

这题一些同学会误选D. we are surrounded by odors问题要求的是表条件when, 定位到原文应该是when the faculty of smell is impaired损坏…, 所以答案应该选C. our ability to smell is damaged.

 

表条件的逻辑关系词:if, unless, when, whenever, granted that…., provided that…, given that.. and only etc.

 

6. 并列

 

摘要题填空:Professor Pretty concludes that … . He feels this would help to change the attitude of both ______ and ______.(剑7 T2 P2-Q26

 

定位原文:It could go a long way, he says, to shifting consumers as well as farmers towards a more sustainable system of agriculture.

 

如果同学们不知道shift的同义词是change, 可根据原文并列关系词as well as与问题并列词both…and同义替换,所以答案是consumers and farmers

 

摘要题填空:In Britain, moreover, scientists worried that English had neither the _______ nor _______ to express their ideas.(剑5 T2 P3-Q30

 

定位原文:English was not well equipped to deal with scientific argument. First, it lacked the necessary technical vocabulary. Second, it lacked the grammatical resources required to represent the world in an objective and impersonal way.

 

“neither...nor”与原文“first…second”表并列,根据问题,答案应该是名词:technical vocabulary nor grammatical resources

 

表并列的逻辑关系词:and, not only… but also, neither…nor, in addition, coupled with, also, too, as well as, equally important, additionally, first—second—third…, on the one hand-on the other hand and together with etc.

 

7. 比较

 

判断题:Johnson has become more well known since his death.(剑5 T1 P1-Q9

 

定位原文:Dr Samuel Johnson, the very model of an eighteenth-century literary man, as famous in his own time as in ours.

 

原文中的意思是一样有名(as…as),所以答案是FALSE

 

判断题:Government handouts do more damage than tourism does to traditional patterns of food-gathering.(剑5 T4 P1-Q9

 

原文定位:Tourism is not always the culprit behind such changes. All kinds of wage labor, or government handouts, tend to undermine traditional survival systems.

 

原文中没有出现表示比较级类似的词,所以答案是NOT GIVEN

 

表比较的逻辑关系词:as…as, the same…as, unlike, like, resemble, compare to and than etc.

 

以上,朗阁海外考试研究中心的专家对雅思阅读中出现的逻辑关系词考点进行了归纳总结,希望同学们熟练掌握各类逻辑关系词,在考场上面对生词时,也能应对自如。

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